Origin of the names of 63 provinces in Vietnam - Travel blog

Origin of the names of 63 provinces in Vietnam

Origin of the names of 63 provinces in Vietnam

Have you ever heard about the origin of the names of 63 provinces and cities in Vietnam? If not, I will explain to you.

1. An Giang
An Giang was formerly Tam Phong Long land. After that, Chan Lap country offered to Lord Nguyen, King Gia Long organized people to reclaim and settle them into one of the six Southern provinces of the independent Nguyen Dynasty. The name An Giang means a peaceful river for long time settlement, meaning to encourage the migrants to set up a village.
In the photo is a landscape in Chau Doc taken around 1920-1929, in the far side is the famous Sam mountain of Chau Doc.
An Giang province
2. Bac Giang
Bac Giang belonged to Vo Ninh county under Hung King's reign of Van Lang, the Ly - Tran dynasties called the Bac Giang highway, in the Le dynasty it was called Phu Bac Ha, in 1822 it was changed to Phu Thien Phuc, in the Tu Duc King period it was Phu Da Phuc. Up to now, no documents have been found to prove, however the name Bac Giang means north of the river.
In the photo is the center of Phu Lang Thuong, Bac Giang town today, on a postcard with the marked May 7, 1908.
Bac Giang province
3. Bac Kan
Bac Kan is a mountainous province in the northeastern region of Vietnam. The article on the stele "Tam Hai Ho Son Chi" in Chinese language engraved on stone built in Bo Lu, on the bank of Ba Be lake, written by Phan Dinh Hoe. Mr Vi Van Thuong carved and built the stele in 1925. The word "Kan" in the old Chinese language means prevent or protect, Bac Kan means protect the north
In the photo, there is a page of the book "Chai Tinh Ky Hoa" in Nom languare of the Tay ethnic group, which accounts for more than 50% of the population of Bac Kan province.
Bac Kan province
4. Bac Liêu
Bac Lieu is pronounced in Sino-Vietnamese from Chaozhou language as "Po Leo", which means a poor hamlet, working as a fisherman. Another opinion is that "Po" is a "bot" or “don” (military station), while "Lieu" means "Lao" (Ai Lao) in the Khmer language, because before the overseas Chinese came, there was a military garrison of Laos people. However, there is also an opinion that the name Bac Lieu comes from the Khmer language as Po Loenh, meaning tall banyan tree.
In the photo is the Bac Lieu market around 1890 - 1910.
Bac Lieu province
5. Bac Ninh
Bac Ninh province was established by the Nguyen Dynasty in 1822 from a part of Kinh Bac land. During the Hong Bang period, Van Lang country was divided into 15 ministries, the Vu Ninh ministry was the territory of most of Bac Ninh province today. The name Bac Ninh may come from Kinh Bac and Vu Ninh. In the photo is the entrance to Bac Ninh citadel, the first ancient citadel in Vietnam built in a hexagonal shape, initially it was built with earth, until the sixth year of Kinh Minh Mang (1825) the citadel was rebuilt by laterite and finally with bricks in the Thieu Tri dynasty (1841).
Bac Ninh province
6. Ba Ria - Vung Tau
Ba Ria - Vung Tau is a land combined by Ba Ria and Vung Tau. The name Ba Ria is a transcription of the name of the Cham Goddess Po Riyak, it may also be a transcription of madam Nguyen Thi Ria from Phu Yen province, who migrated with the people in Tran Bien when she was 15 years old, she had great merit in developing the mountains of forests of Dong Xoai region.
Vung Tau was established in 1895, however, in Le Quy Don's Phu Bien Tap Luc book in 1776, the word Vung Tau was mentioned: "The begining of Gia Dinh is the land of Vung Tau, where the island is populated", that was composed of three villages of Thang Nhat, Thang Nhi, Thang Tam which were established by Lord Nguyen Phuc Tan in 1658, this land has three sides bordering the sea, very convenient for ships to park to avoid the wind before entering Gia Dinh, so it is called Vung (Pool) for Tau (Ships).
In the photo is Ba Ria province taken around 1920-1929.
Ba Ria - Vung Tau province
7. Ben Tre
In the old days, according to the book "Monographie De La Province De Ben Tre" by Ménard in 1903, the Khmer called it Xu Tre because the bamboo grew in abundance, then people set up a market to trade and call Ben Tre market, translated as Bamboo dock.
In the photo is the Casino theater in Ben Tre town in the 1920s.
Ben Tre province
8. Binh Dinh
Binh Dinh was the name given by King Nguyen Anh in 1799 after he defeated Quy Nhon, Nguyen Anh then renamed Binh Dinh, meant to show the victor's posture, maybe Nguyen Anh thought he had entered the land of the Tay Son dynasty, pacified the Tay Son rebels as in the words of the Nguyen Dynasty kings.
In the photo is the Cathedral Church of Quy Nhon Diocese, inaugurated on December 10, 1939 with the title of Our Lady of the Rosary.
Binh Dinh province
9. Binh Duong
Binh Duong in the old Saigon - Gia Dinh book said that it was taken from the place of medieval China, where King Nghieu who started up the old Chinese kingdom. Binh Duong is now part of the old Thu Dau Mot province. Regarding the name Thu Dau Mot, many people believe that it originates from the Cambodian language, but other scholars think that Thu Dau Mot is a Vietnamese phrase formed by the combination of two elements Thu (keep). Dau Mot (land name), because according to the oral theory, the garrison guard in Binh An is located on a hill with a large oil tree called "Dau Mot tree", so the name Thu Dau Mot was born.
In the photo is a row of shopping streets in Thu Dau Mot market around 1920-1929. At this time there was no electricity, each corner of the market had a street lamp illuminated by kerosene lamps, with a rope hanging on the pulley to lower the lamp for every night or to add oil. At the end of the road with an octagonal roof is a fish market, close to the river bank.
Binh Duong province
10. Binh Phuoc
Binh Phuoc has its name since January 30, 1971, when the Central Department of the South issued a resolution to merge the two provinces of Binh Long and Phuoc Long into a unit directly under the Central Department.
In the photo is An Loc town around 1970, in Binh Long province, photo of Bill Flora.
Binh Phuoc province
11. Binh Thuan
Binh Thuan is a name dating back to 1697, when Lord Nguyen established Binh Thuan Phu, including 2 districts An Phuoc and Hoa Da. "Binh" means the discovery and pacification of a land, Thuan is the peaceful life between the two ethnic groups of Champa and Kinh, because this land is not stable at this time, so Lord Nguyen named it. In 1827, during the reign of Emperor Minh Mang, Binh Thuan was set up as a province.
In the photo, on the right is the Phan Thiet water tower on the left bank of the Ca Ty river, starting construction in late 1928, completed in early 1934.
Binh Thuan province
12. Ca Mau
Ca Mau is a name formed by the Khmer people calling this land "Tuk Kha-mau", meaning black water, because the cajuput leaves of the U Minh cajuput forest changed the color of the water. Ca Mau is a wetland land, with many bushes growing naturally and wild. That is why, since ancient times, there has been a saying: "Ca Mau is a country land / Mosquito is as big as chickens, tigers hunt buffaloes".
In the far part of the photo is the Ca Mau turning bridge, around 1940, now it is the section of Ca Mau Water Supply Joint Stock Company).
Ca Mau province
13. Can Tho
Can Tho is a place when compared to the original Khmer name of this area, Prek Rusey (Bamboo River), which has no phonetic relevance, but before, there was a canal named after a fish as kyntho in the Khmer language, later turned into Can Tho. Can Tho province itself was established on January 1, 1900 under the French colonial rule, after that, it was split, merged and moved geographically many times.
In the photo is Hang Dua market taken in 1955, now it is Can Tho market.
Can Tho province
14. Cao Bang
Cao Bang belonged to the Vu Dinh district under the Hung Vuong times, from the Ly dynasty it belonged to Thai Nguyen land. In 1467 it was called Phu Bac Binh (Bac Binh district), and later it was changed to Cao Binh. In 1676, the Le dynasty recovered from the Mac's hands and renamed it Cao Binh town. During the Tay Son dynasty, the name Cao Binh gradually misspelled as Cao Bang until now.
In the photo is Ban Gioc waterfall in the French colonial period with a group of French trainees and commanders (riding horses) taken by the waterfall.
Cao Bang province
15. Dak Lak
Dak Lak is named after the M'Nong language meaning "Lak lake", with dak meaning "water" or "lake". Dak Lak is considered one of the cradles nurturing the Central Highlands gong culture, recognized by UNESCO as the world's oral masterpiece and intangible value.
In the photo is the press article about the funeral of Mr. Ama Thuot, a famous chief of the ancient Ede ethnic, died in 1923.
Dak Lak province
16. Dak Nong
Dak Nong in the M'Nong language means Water (or land) of the M'Nong people. Dak Nong is located at the southwest gate of the Central Highlands, in the north and northeast bordering the territory of Dak Lak province, the east and southeast bordering Lam Dong province, the south bordering Binh Phuoc province, the west bordering the Kingdom of Cambodia.
In the photo is Ta Dung lake, considered as Halong bay of the Central Highlands.
Dak Nong province
17. Da Nang
Da Nang is the mispelled name of the ancient Cham word Daknan. "Dak" means water, "nan" is wide. Daknan implies the immense river area at the mouth of the Han River. Some researchers believe that "Da Nang" may come from the Mon-Khmer language group, Dakdong - Da Duong, which means the river source.
In the photo is the Hoang Sa archipelago on a map of Germany in 1876 with the statement clearly that the archipelago belongs to the land of "Annam".
Da Nang province
18. Dien Bien
Dien Bien is an ancient land. Dien Bien Phu was originally called Muong Thanh, from the word Muong Then in the Thai language, meaning heaven place. This is considered a sacred land in the remote region, according to ancient beliefs, it is a place of heaven and earth. The name Phu Dien Bien, or Dien Bien Phu was given by King Thieu Tri in 1841, in this sense the word Dien means a large mountainous area but sacred land, a shrine, Bien mean border.
In the picture are Thai ethnic people collecting parachutes of the French at Dien Bien Phu battlefield in 1953-1954.
Dien Bien province
19. Dong Nai
Dong Nai's original name is still unclear. Local theory says this area used to be a field with many deer. There is also an opinion that the word Dong in Dong Nai is the phonetic form of the word Đường in Đạ Đàng (Song Cai) of the Ma people; because there are many other names derived from the word Dong (Duong) but not the field: Dong Tranh, Dong Mon, Dong Tram, Dong Truong...In the 17th century, Dong Nai or the land of Dong. Nai refers to a large area of the South Vietnam now.
In the photo is Ken citadel, in December 1861, the ancient citadel of Bien Hoa fell into the hands of the French colonialists, the French army rebuilt the citadel, reduced it to 1/8 compared to before and called the "Petrolium" (Soldat ), means to be a soldier. In the morning, soldiers often used alarm bells, the sound echoes the whole area, so the local people call it "Ken Citadel".
Dong Nai province
20. Dong Thap
Dong Thap has its name from Dong Thap Muoi, written documents are written "dong Thap Muoi" (without capital letter D), which means "10th tower" or "10-storey tower", there are even different explainations about the meanings above. Many people believe that the name of Thap Muoi was formed and transformed as follows: Thap Muoi -> Thap Muoi mound (Go Thap for short) -> dong Thap Muoi -> Dong Thap Muoi area -> Thap Muoi + Dong Thap.
In the photo is Vinh Phuoc communal house, built in 1807, worshiping the superior god Tong Phuoc Hoa.
Dong Thap province
21. Gia Lai
Gia Lai's name originates from the Jarai word, the name of an indigenous ethnic group with the largest population in the province. This land is Jarai, Charay, Ya-Ray means the land of the Jarai people, possibly referring to the land of Thuy Xa and Hoa Xa in the old Jarai state.
In the photo is T'nung lake in 1969, also known as Bien Ho, Ea Nueng Lake... is a freshwater lake located in the northwest of Pleiku town.
Gia Lai province
22. Ha Giang
Ha Giang, according to literal interpretation, is a small river flowing into a large stream.
In the photo is the town of Ha Giang around 1910, the far side is Cam mountain, at the foot of the mountain are busy streets with crowded population.
Ha Giang province
23. Hai Duong
Hai Duong has it's official name since 1469, Hai means the coastal area, the land bordering the sea, Duong means the the light of the sun. Hai Duong is located in the east of Thang Long capital city. East direction is also the direction of sunrise. So Hai Duong means "the sun of the East Sea" or "light coming from the coast (east)". In "Du Dia Chi" book, Nguyen Trai evaluated Hai Duong as the first of the four towns and the eastern fence of Thang Long citadel.
In the photo is Hai Duong citadel or Thanh Dong in 1885, one of the four towns of Thang Long capital.
Hai Duong province
24. Hai Phong
Hai Phong is also known as Dat Cang, or Port City, Red Flower City, founded in 1888. The name Hai Phong can be shortened in the phrase "Hai Tan phong thu" (defense the sea) of female general Le Chan, or from a shortened name of a state agency in Tu Duc dynasty in Hai Duong: Hai Duong Thuong Chinh Quan Phong (Hai Duong commercial and administrative office), it can also be founded as Hai Phong garrison by Bui Vien in 1871 under Tu Duc dynasty.
In the photo is a panoramic view of ancient Kien An town, seen from Dau Dong mountain. Military barracks are located at the foot of the mountain, the far side is Thien Van mountain, the name originates from the observatory built by the French in 1902 on the top of the mountain. Kien An is located in the valley of Thien Van mountain ranges (or Dau Son) and Cot Co mountain (or Phu Lien).
Hai Phong city
25. Ha Nam
Ha Nam was established in 1890, Nam Dinh was divided from Thai Binh province and a part of the northern area to form Ha Nam province with the southern part of Hanoi. Ha is taken from Hà Nội, and Nam is from Nam Dinh.
In the photo is the Day River flowing through Kim Bang district Ha Nam in 1950.
Ha Nam province
26. Ha Noi
Ha Noi was Thang Long, ancient Dong Do changed its name in 1831 under the reign of Emperor Minh Mang. Ha Noi means inside the river, Ha Noi is surrounded by two rivers: the Red River and the Day River.
In the photo is Cua Bac, or Chinh Bac Mon gate, one of the five gates of Ha Noi in the Nguyen Dynasty. When the French destroyed Hanoi citadel, they kept the North gate because there were two traces of cannons fired by the French from the Red River in 1882 when the French beat Hanoi citadel for the second time. Today, on the gate is the place to worship the two Hanoi governors Nguyen Tri Phuong and Hoang Dieu.
Hanoi city
27. Ha Tinh
Ha Tinh has its name since 1831, when King Minh Mang split Nghe Tinh into 2 provinces Nghe An and Ha Tinh.
In the photo is the area of Mount Nai in 1975.
Ha Tinh province
28. Hau Giang
Hau Giang is a place where it's name originates from the name of the Hau River. In 1976, there was also a Hau Giang province in the southwestern region, dissolved in 1991 due to being divided into Can Tho province and Soc Trang province, then in 2004 Can Tho province was divided into the city of Can Tho directly under the central government. and present Hau Giang province.
In the photo is the area of Nga Bay floating market taken from above, in 1961.
Hau Giang province
29. Hoa Binh
Hoa Binh is a province established in 1886 under the decree of Kinh Luoc Bac Ky (northern governor) with the name Muong province. The provincial capital is located in Cho Bo township, so it is also called Cho Bo province. At the end of 1886 it was moved to Phuong Lam commune, in 1888 it was renamed as Phuong Lam province. In 1896 the provincial capital was moved to Hoa Binh commune, on the left bank of Da river, opposite Phuong Lam and since then called Hoa Binh province.
In the photo is the documentary image of the construction of Hoa Binh hydropower plant in 1979.
Hoa Binh province
30. Hung Yen
Hung Yen has the meaning of prosperity and peace, the province was established in 1831 including the districts of Dong Yen, Kim Dong, Thien Thi, Tien Lu, Phu Dung of Son Nam and Than Khe towns, Hung Nhan, Duyen Ha of Nam Dinh town. The Hung Yen land was famous from the Trinh - Nguyen war because of Pho Hien, the folk has a saying "First Kinh Ky (Ha Noi capital), second Pho Hien".
In the photo, Xich Dang temple was built around in 1701, to worship Chu Van An - a talented and righteous teacher in the Tran Dynasty.
Hung Yen province
31. Khanh Hoa
Khanh Hoa province was established in 1831 from Binh Hoa town, while Binh Hoa then became Ninh Hoa town. Khanh Hoa is an old part of Kauthara land belonging to the Champa kingdom. In 1653, taking the excuse of King Chiem Thanh - Ba Tam harassing the Vietnamese people in Phu Yen, Lord Nguyen Phuc Tan sent the governor of Hung Loc to bring troops to conquer the land from Phan Rang to Phu Yen. In the old Chinese, the word "Khanh" is related to mood, emotion, personality...the original meaning is "congratulation", the word Hoa is roughly understood as consensus and harmony.
In the photo is a national monument, the sovereignty stele of Truong Sa archipelago of Vietnam built in 1956: “Truong Sa archipelago belongs to Phuoc Tuy province. The military mission surveyed visited the archipelago on August 22, 1956 under the direction of the Vietnamese Navy ”.
Khanh Hoa province
32. Kien Giang
Kien Giang province was established in 1975, mostly in the area of old Ha Tien town, discovered by Mac Cuu in the seventeenth century. The name Kien Giang can be derived from the name of a river in Rach Gia, which is the Kien river.
In the photo is the Rach Gia church in 1926, at this time not completed (no bell tower).
Kien Giang province
33. Kon Tum
Kon Tum, according to the Ba Na language, Kon is a village, Tum is a lake, Kon Tum refers to the name of a village near a lake next to the Dak Bla river, which is now Kon Ko Nam village in Kon Tum city.
In the photo is the cathedral in Kon Tum, taken from the video Kontum et de sa région prises en 1947 by Michel Grisey.
Kon Tum province
34. Lai Chau
Lai Chau's name comes from the Chau Lay words. At the beginning of the tenth century, the Thai rulers who occupied this land named it Muong Lay. In 1435, Nguyen Trai's Du Dia Chi book called it Chau Lai due to the transcription of Lay.
In the photo is a view of Lai Chau from above, taken by the author Vo An Ninh (1907-2009).
Lai Chau province
35. Lam Dong
Lam Dong was established from the merger of Lam Vien province with Dong Nai Thuong province.
In the photo is an image of Da Lat taken from above in 1960, this is the first photo of Da Lat taken from an airplane, the photographer is Mr. Tran Van Chau.
Lam Dong province
36. Lang Son
Lang Son is one of 13 provinces first established by King Minh Mang in Bac Ky (northern Vietnam) in 1831, its name comes from "Lang country".
In the photo is Bac Le market now in Tan Thanh commune, Huu Lung district, Lang Son province, taken in 1915.
Lang Son province
37. Lao Cai
Lao Cai is the pronunciation of local people reading Lao Nhai meaning Old Street or Old Market. Local people often call Bao Thang, a neighborhood built by Luu Vinh Phuc located in the area of present-day Lao Cai town by the name of Lao Kay, then the French also transcripted that name in Latin as Lao Kai or Lao Kay.
In the photo is a small street in the area of Coc Luu during the French colonial period.
Lao Cai province
38. Long An
Long An is a place that is understood in the sense: An is peaceful and safe. Long is flourishing, beautiful.
In the photo is the Eiffel Iron Bridge, in 1930, at this time there was no Tan An bridge.
Long An province
39. Nam Dinh
Nam Dinh has its name originated in 1822, when the Nguyen Dynasty changed the name of Son Nam Ha town to Nam Dinh town, the word Nam from the Le dynasty means the South and of the word Dinh means pacification, which was the name Nguyen dynasty gave to many lands. In 1832 Nam Dinh town was to Nam Dinh province (including Thai Binh and a part of present Ha Nam land). In 1890, Thai Binh split into a separate province and a northern part of Nam Dinh split to form Ha Nam province with a southern part of Hanoi.
In the photo is Nam Dinh market around 1900-1910.
Nam Dinh province
40. Nghe An
Nghe An is a name dating back to 1030 in the Ly dynasty, the 2nd Thien Thanh year of Ly Thai Tong dynasty, at that time it was called Nghe An Chau camp, together with Ha Tinh, it had the same common name as Hoan Chau during the Northern colonial period. King Le Thanh Tong changed it to Nghe, then Nghe An town. In 1831, King Minh Mang divided Nghe An town into two provinces: Nghe An and Ha Tinh.
In the photo is a panoramic view of Ben Thuy around 1920-1929.
Nghe An province
41. Ninh Binh
Ninh Binh means peaceful and quiet. It has been named Ninh Binh religion since 1822, in 1831 it was changed to Ninh Binh province.
In the photo is an image of Ninh Binh on a postcard during the French colonial period.
Ninh Binh province
42. Ninh Thuan
Ninh Thuan is the name that first appeared as the Ninh Thuan town in 1832 under the reign of Emperor Minh Mang, and lasted until 1888. After that, Phan Rang province was established, also called Ninh Thuan province. From 1945 till now it has been renamed several times.
In the photo is Phan Rang market around 1900-1930.
Ninh Thuan province
43. Phu Tho
Phu Tho is the name derived from the name of Phu Tho village in Yen Phu county, Son Vi district, Hung Hoa province that established Phu Tho town in 1903. After that, the French moved the capital of Hung Hoa province to Phu Tho town and renamed Hung Hoa province to Phu Tho province.
In the photo is the panoramic view of Nghia Linh Mountain, where Hung Temple is located during a festival, around 1920-1929.
Phu Tho province
44. Phu Yen
Phu Yen was under the management of the Cham Pa with the name Ayaru until 1471, King Le Thanh Tong personally took the army to fight Cham Pa until Ca pass, then merged the land from Hai Van pass to Cu Mong pass (north of Phu Yen) into Dai Viet territory, from where Ayaru was a place of frequent disputes between the Vietnamese and the Cham. In 1611, Nguyen Hoang sent his general to attack Aryaru, Champa kingdom lost and Nguyen Hoang merged Ayaru into the territory of Dang Trong (south of Phu Yen) under the name Phu Yen, with the wish for a rich and peaceful land in the future.
In the photo is Song Cau town in 1970.
Phu Yen province
45. Quang Binh
Quang Binh is the land named by Lord Nguyen Hoang since 1558, the old names of this area include: Bo Chinh, Tan Binh, Lam Binh, Tien Binh, Tay Binh. The name of Tien Binh in Le Trung Hung's time was Tien Binh. In 1604, it was renamed Quang Binh province, in which Quang means large land.
In the photo is Dai bridge, taken in 1964.
Quang Binh province
46. Quang Nam
Quang Nam means of expanding to the south. It can be seen that the Central region many provinces have the word Quang in the names. Because this is a narrow strip of land, the naming of Quang is expected to be large and immense.
In the photo is the entrance to the Covered Bridge, a symbolic work of the ancient town of Hoi An, around 1940s, photo by reporter of Life magazine.
Quang Nam province
47. Quang Ngai
Quang Ngai may be the name that has the meaning of a strip of gratitude. In 1602 Quang Nam town was changed to Quang Nam palace, Tu Nghia palace that belonged to Quang Nam palace was changed to Quang Nghia palace. In 1807, Cu Mong commune (later Chanh Mong and Chanh Lo) was chosen as the construction site of Quang Nghia province. In 1832, Quang Nghia province, or Ngai province was established.
In the photo is a hospital in Quang Ngai during the French colonial period, in the book Mes Trois ans d'Annam by French author Gabrielle M. Vassal, published in 1911.
Quang Ngai province
48. Quang Ninh
Quang Ninh is a land of long history. In the area of Ha Long Bay, archaeological relics of the prehistoric people from 3000 - 1500 BC. When the first Vietnamese State was formed, during the Hung Vuong period, the land of Quang Ninh was now the Luc Hai district. One of the 15 districts of Van Lang state. In the feudal period, the area of Quang Ninh province is now named: Luc Chau, Dong Hai county, Hai Dong county, An Bang county, Quang Yen province. Later, Quang Yen was split into many other units, including Hai Ninh, later Quang Yen together with Hai Ninh and these units merged into Quang Ninh now. Thus, Quang Ninh province is now almost the old Quang Yen province.
In the photo is Hon Gai, taken in 1915.
Quang Ninh province
49. Soc Trang
Soc Trang is a name which comes from the Khmer word "Srock Khléang". Srock means land, Khléang is the king's gold storehouse. Previously, the Vietnamese wrote it as Soc Kha Lang, and later later it became Soc Trang. The name Shock Trang has been completely transformed several times. During the king Ming Mang period, it was changed to Nguyet Giang province, which means moon river (Srock means river, Sino-Vietnamese is Giang; Trang is moon).
In the photo is the main street in Soc Trang around 1920-1929, now it is Hai Ba Trung.
Soc Trang province
50. Son La
Son La's name comes from the origin of Nam La, a secondary tributary of the Da River. Son La before 1479 was largely the territory of the kingdom of Bon Man, which was officially merged into Dai Viet in 1749. In 1886, Son La district was established under Gia Hung town, Hung Hoa province. In 1895, Van Bu province was established, the capital was located in Ta Bu, on August 23, 1904, was renamed Son La province.
In the photo is the panorama of French works on Khau Ca hill, Son La, about 1930-1940.
Son La province
51. Tay Ninh
Tay Ninh from ancient times was originally a land belonging to Thuy Chan Lap, with the name Romdum Ray, which means "Elephant shed" because there are only dense forests with all kinds of wild animals such as tigers, elephants, leopards, snakes…. The name Tay Ninh means political peace in the west.
In the photo is the Keo wharf in 1900, located on Highway 22, heading to Saigon, about 8km away from the city center of Tay Ninh.
Tay Ninh province
52. Thai Binh
Thai Binh with the name of Thai Binh district, including most of the land of Thai Binh province dating back to 1005 with the event of changing the name of Dang Chau to Thai Binh district. On March 21, 1890, Governor General of Indochina issued a decree taking Kien Xuong palace to separate from Nam Dinh province and Than Khe district from Hung Yen province and merged with Thai Binh district to form Thai Binh province.
In the photo is a scene of a market in Thai Binh in 1945, photo by Vo An Ninh.
Thai Binh province
53. Thai Nguyen
Thai Nguyen is a name derived from Sino-Vietnamese language, Thai means large or spacious, Nguyen means field or large and flat land. The province was established in 1831, in 1890 the French government divided Thai Nguyen province into two provinces of Thai Nguyen and Bac Kan. In 1965, the Government of the Democratic Republic of Vietnam merged two provinces with the name Bac Thai. In 1996, Bac Thai was divided into Bac Kan and Thai Nguyen provinces. Thus, Thai Nguyen was established by almost the entire old Bac Thai province.
In the photo is the gate of a military camp in Thai Nguyen province, where the Thai Nguyen uprising took place in 1917.
Thai Nguyen province
54. Thanh Hoa
Thanh Hoa province is the transitional land between North and Central Vietnam, it is the province with the least number of mergers and divisions in the country. During the Dinh and Tien Le dynasties Thanh Hoa was called Ai Chau. In the Ly Dynasty, the early period was called Ai Chau camp, in Thuan Thien 1 year, it was 1009 called Phu Thanh Hoa. In 1469 it changed to Thua Tuyen Thanh Hoa, the name Thanh Hoa appeared since then. In 1802, it was renamed Thanh Hoa town, possibly because the old name coincided with the name of a concubine of the king. In 1831, the town was changed to a province, and it was called Thanh Hoa province. In 1841 it changed to Thanh Hoa province until today.
In the photo is Tho Hac citadel, built under the reign of Kings Gia Long and Minh Mang, taken around 1920-1929.
Thanh Hoa province
55. Thua Thien Hue
Thua Thien Hue was Phu Xuan district under the Tay Son dynasty. When King Gia Long divided the country into 23 towns and four palaces, present-day Thua Thien Hue belonged to Quang Duc palace. In 1822, Quang Duc palace was renamed Thua Thien palace by King Minh Mang. From 1831-1832, King Minh Mang divided the whole country into 31 administrative units including 30 provinces and one district, Thua Thien. Along with the ups and downs according to the historical flow, the name and administrative boundary of the province have changed in different historical periods and have been stable with the name of Thua Thien Hue and the boundary from 1989 till now.
In the photo is the Perfume River on the death of King Khai Dinh, November 6, 1925.
Thua Thien Hue province
56. Tien Giang
Tien Giang is a land named after the Tien River, the land of which the Vietnamese mostly from Ngu Quang region settled in the 17th century. After many changes of name and geographical area, until 1976, the official name was Tien Giang province on the basis of merging My Tho province, Go Cong province and My Tho town.
In the photo is My Tho town taken in 1910, in the 17th century, My Tho was one of the two largest commercial centers in the South at that time along with Gia Dinh - Saigon.
Tien Giang province
57. Ho Chi Minh city
Ho Chi Minh City is still popularly known with its old name Saigon. There are many theories about the Saigon name, but the most plausible theory is the Brai Nagara origin. In the 18th century, the old Gia Dinh region had two places, Rai-gon thong (Upper Saigon) and Rai-gon ha (Lower Saigon). The origin of the Rai gon is Brai Nagara or Prey Nokor. Moreover, this name has no meaning in Vietnamese, so the ability to translate words from other ethnic groups is understandable.
In the photo is the intersection of Gia Dinh, Le Van Duyet - Chi Lang - Bach Dang, now Phan Dang Luu - Bach Dang - Dinh Tien Hoang.
Ho Chi Minh city
58. Tra Vinh
Tra Vinh is a place of Khmer origin with its initial name Tra Vang which can be a variation of the word "prha trapenh" which means pond, Buddha pond or sacred pond. Because it is believed that in the old days, people dug and found a Buddha statue in a pond in this land. During the Nguyen dynasty, Tra Vinh was the district capital of Lac Hoa district, Vinh Long province, established in 1832.
In the photo are traders taken in 1925 in Tra Vinh.
Tra Vinh province
59. Tuyen Quang
Tuyen Quang's name originated from the Tuyen Quang river which is now the Lo river. "An Nam Chi Luoc" book by Le Tac, wroted in 1335: Water from Quy Hoa river flows from Yunnan, water from Tuyen Quang river flows from Dac Ma, Da river water flows from Chang Long, there is a junction. which was named as such, Tuyen Quang became a province during the reign of Emperor Minh Mang.
In the photo is the Lo River about 1920-1940, before the "battle of Lo river".
Tuyen Quang province
60. Vinh Long
In the Sino-Vietnamese language Vinh Long has many meanings, which can mean: "prosperity (Long) lasting, forever (Vinh)". The name Vinh Long, once called Vang Long, however difficult to explain the semantic relationship, because the meaning of “Vang” is" gone, passed, often "not consistent with the meaning of "Vinh", as in the compound word "Vinh Long". It is possible to explain the path of phonetic conversion to make it easier to pronounce, many words also change from “inh” to “ang”.
In the photo is the entertainment center Bungalow (Cong Quan) built by the French in Vinh Long around 1900, across the river is Ward 5 today.
Vinh Long province
61. Vinh Phuc
Vinh Phuc was established on 12 February1950 by combining the two provinces of Vinh Yen and Phuc Yen, but due to many splits and mergers, Vinh Phuc now includes Vinh Yen province and Phuc Yen town before. During the period when the French temporarily occupied the North in the period 1946-1954, the province was also known as Vinh Phuc Yen province.
In the photo is a temple on the way to Tam Dao, taken in June 1916.
Vinh Phuc province
62. Yen Bai
Yen Bai is the name taken from the village name Yen Bai, on April 11, 1900 the French colonialists established Yen Bai province, comprising Tran Yen district, two districts Van Chan, Van Ban and provincial town located in Yen Bai village. From 1910 - 1920 moved Luc Yen district (Tuyen Quang province) and Than Uyen district (Lai Chau province) into Yen Bai province. Since 1945, there have been many splits and mergers of a part or the whole province.
In the photo is Yen Bai cathedral in 1910.
Yen Baiprovince

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Dear Mr. Huy Hoang
We had a wonderful amazing trip and will return as soon as we can afford it again. Thank you so much! I will write a great review on tripadvisor. Really the guides and hotels and tours were awesome. Ms. Nhung was very sweet and refreshingly honest, very likeable. Mr. Tam was fantastic, highly knowledgeable and funny. Probably our best "tour" was the day we spent on motor bikes visiting the tombs near Hue. The bikes allow for a much more intimate view of the countryside. And then - as I wrote - Mr. An was absolutely the best guide ever...Read more